For cattle, with a roller-mounted hide stripper, skinning is possible either from top to bottom or from bottom to top. A disadvantage of this method is that the force needed for dehiding is so high that overstretching of the hide can happen, which lowers its value for processing. The conventional process of hair removal from slaughtered hogs utilizes hot water for scalding and a gas flame for singeing. The traditional scalding method is vat scalding.
On economic grounds, many hogs are scalded in the same hot water; this results in rapid pollution of the scalding water. A disadvantage of vat scalding is the possibility that scalding water can enter the lungs and, via the sticking wound, into deeper tissues of the carcass.
Investigations have revealed that the risk of bacterial internal contamination of lung, liver, heart, and muscles depends on the scalding and dehairing technology. From a hygienic point of view, vat scalding with simultaneous dehairing mechanical treatment by dehairing implements with pressing and pumping effects on the thorax was the most dubious method. An alternative to vat scalding is the scalding tunnel.
The pigs are brought through the tunnel by means of a chain-conveyor in a hanging position. Scalding is done either by spraying carcasses with hot water that is pumped around the system or by condensed steam. To obtain a low bacterial count on the carcass surface, it is still necessary that the pigs pass through a prewashing machine prior to the scalding tunnel. After scalding, the next process in a pig slaughter line is dehairing. Dehairing scraping machines are constructed from heavy U-shaped bars, a steel frame, and one or two shafts to which belt scrapers are attached.
The hogs are sprayed with water as they pass lying and rotating through the dehairer.
After dehairing, the pigs are conveyed to the prepolisher. The prepolish machine is needed to remove any remaining hair and to dry the surface of the pig. In this way the effect of the singeing furnace will be optimal and gas consumption is reduced. The singeing furnace is intended to reduce surface bacteria and to singe hair stubble.
The surface bacterial count can be reduced by 1—2 powers of 10 by the heat effect. This is not the case if the carcasses are still very moist after singeing. This is followed by the polishing machine, which cleans the singed pigs by brushing. Here the mechanical treatment of the pig skin comes to an end. The washing and polishing process usually causes recontamination of the carcass surface. This is due to the whips inside the washing machine, which are hard to clean. Opening and evisceration of the slaughtered animals take place on the slaughter conveyor manually by means of knife, axe, or saw.
First the aitch-bone is split at its midpoint.
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The next step is loosening the anus and the reproductive tract. For this step, mechanical rectum looseners are frequently used. In the USA and the Far East, the guts and the pluck contents of the thoracic cavity are taken out together. To avoid the hygiene risk of an outflow of rumen content in cattle, the esophagus should not be cut but rather it should be separated from the trachea and shut with a special instrument rodding.
Removing the pluck is the last step of evisceration. Hog opening can also be done by a robotic system that adapts itself to the physical shape of the hog. The slaughtering robot cuts loose the rectum, splits the aitch-bone, and separates the ham. The front unit cleaves the sternum and opens the abdominal wall of the hog.
Splitting of carcasses cattle, pigs, horses can be executed manually by axe or saw or in automatic carcass-splitting systems.
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The automatic systems work within the continuous dressing conveyor. The carcasses are split by a circular saw. Backbone guides and holding jaws on each side stabilize the carcass and thus prevent miscuts. During the cutting operation the saw blade is cooled with cold water. For pig carcasses, automatic chopper machines are also in use. Nam Hee Kim, Key processing steps in slaughterhouses include skinning and decontamination of the carcass, including washing.
Cattle hide is an important primary source of pathogenic E. After hide removal, proper decontamination measures should be followed to minimize the possibility of the pathogen contamination. Also, preslaughter washing of hides effectively reduces the prevalence of E.
Before trimming, carcasses may be exposed to pathogenic E. Following good hygienic practice can reduce the risks of transmission, and management strategies should be in place for each source. In particular, hygienic handling of harvesting tools is important as they are in contact with carcasses almost continuously. Mahmoud and Linton report the applicability of nonthermal sanitizing treatments to animal harvesting knives and suggest antibacterial agents e.
Intervention strategies can be categorized as follows: 1 removal of contaminated area, 2 washing, and 3 irradiation. Standard procedures for the hygienic handling of carcasses essentially involve conventional washing without sanitizing agents; these procedures act as a fundamental antibacterial treatment by washing away pathogens attached to the carcass surface.
Of the various irradiation measures used, low-dose electron beam e-beam has been approved for use in the meat industry and shows high efficacy in terms of reducing E. The herds delivering pigs to Slaughterhouse A were ranked according to their likelihood of being the source of contamination. This was done on the basis of data from the CHR register including the Danish central pig movement database , the bacteriological and serological Salmonella herd surveillance data, the deliverance size and pattern and the herd mortality.
Deliveries of pigs from the herds were compared with the dates of slaughter from which pork batches were found culture-positive with the outbreak strain.
In selected herds the assessment led to full mapping of the trade pattern and visits from the RVFCA to confirm register data and ensure the absence of clinical signs of salmonellosis. In one herd in particular, the days of delivery frequently matched the culture- positive slaughter days. The herd was a major supplier of pigs to Slaughterhouse A, but no clear indication of high Salmonella levels was found in the herd. Jenkins, in Advances in Parasitology , No systematic data are available but slaughterhouse reports indicate that CE in livestock is nearly absent. In one case, G7 was identified in a cyst from a pig in Austria H.
However, the company said in an e-mail to Reuters on Thursday it will be months before the facility returns to full production. The fire could not have come at a worse time for cattlemen. The number of cattle being fed for slaughter reached Discover Thomson Reuters. Directory of sites. United States.